In many prehistoric and ancient cultures, the Moon was personified as a deity or other supernatural phenomenon, and astrological views of the Moon continue to be propagated today. Warcraft: The Beginning (2016) | In Mesopotamian iconography, the crescent was the primary symbol of Nanna-Sîn. This is thought to be because the Moon fused from two different bodies. , The gravitational field of the Moon has been measured through tracking the Doppler shift of radio signals emitted by orbiting spacecraft. , where Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 12. The Moon is Earth's only proper natural satellite. This is the percentage of the Moon illuminated by the Sun. Subsequently the dust was tasted and smelled by the astronauts, calling it the "Apollo aroma". For moons in general, see, From Earth, the Moon and the Sun appear the same size, as seen in the, The range of angular size values given are based on simple scaling of the following values given in the fact sheet reference: at an Earth-equator to Moon-centre distance of 378 000 km, the.  From images taken by Clementine in 1994, it appears that four mountainous regions on the rim of the crater Peary at the Moon's north pole may remain illuminated for the entire lunar day, creating peaks of eternal light.  In 2006, a study of Ina, a tiny depression in Lacus Felicitatis, found jagged, relatively dust-free features that, because of the lack of erosion by infalling debris, appeared to be only 2 million years old. There are a few different types of unusual full moon types, which include blood moons, supermoons, blue moons, and harvest moons, and others. The Moon (or Luna) is the Earth’s only natural satellite and was formed 4.6 billion years ago around some 30–50 million years after the formation of the solar system.The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth meaning the same side is always facing the Earth. , One of the earliest-discovered possible depictions of the Moon is a 5000-year-old rock carving Orthostat 47 at Knowth, Ireland. Its sources include outgassing and sputtering, a product of the bombardment of lunar soil by solar wind ions.  In 1994, the bistatic radar experiment located on the Clementine spacecraft, indicated the existence of small, frozen pockets of water close to the surface. ", "Statement by the Board of Directors of the IISL On Claims to Property Rights Regarding The Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (2004)", "Further Statement by the Board of Directors of the IISL On Claims to Lunar Property Rights (2009)", "Administration Statement on Executive Order on Encouraging International Support for the Recovery and Use of Space Resources", "Executive Order on Encouraging International Support for the Recovery and Use of Space Resources", Ahead Of Chandrayaan 2 Landing, Poet-Diplomat Writes "Moon Anthem", "Islamic Calendars based on the Calculated First Visibility of the Lunar Crescent", Moon Trek – An integrated map browser of datasets and maps for the Moon, Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature (USGS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Large image of the Moon's north pole area, Large image of Moon's south pole area (1000x1000px), "Find moonrise, moonset and moonphase for a location", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Moon&oldid=995296178, Astronomical objects known since antiquity, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Albums of images and high-resolution overflight videos by Seán Doran, based on, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 07:34.  Its most visible topographic feature is the giant far-side South Pole–Aitken basin, some 2,240 km (1,390 mi) in diameter, the largest crater on the Moon and the second-largest confirmed impact crater in the Solar System. On average, 120 kilograms of dust are present above the Moon, rising to 100 kilometers above the surface. On July 20, 1969, NASA astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first people to set foot on the dusty surface of the Moon.  Several forming mechanisms have been proposed, including the fission of the Moon from Earth's crust through centrifugal force (which would require too great an initial rotation rate of Earth), the gravitational capture of a pre-formed Moon (which would require an unfeasibly extended atmosphere of Earth to dissipate the energy of the passing Moon), and the co-formation of Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk (which does not explain the depletion of metals in the Moon). This raises the possibility of a much warmer lunar mantle than previously believed, at least on the near side where the deep crust is substantially warmer because of the greater concentration of radioactive elements.  In 1998, the neutron spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector spacecraft showed that high concentrations of hydrogen are present in the first meter of depth in the regolith near the polar regions. As a result, the Moon would be suspended in the sky over one meridian, as is already currently the case with Pluto and its moon Charon.  The lunar geologic timescale is based on the most prominent impact events, including Nectaris, Imbrium, and Orientale, structures characterized by multiple rings of uplifted material, between hundreds and thousands of kilometers in diameter and associated with a broad apron of ejecta deposits that form a regional stratigraphic horizon. Dabei wird er von einer künstlichen Intelligenz namens GERTY unterstützt. , The dark and relatively featureless lunar plains, clearly seen with the naked eye, are called maria (Latin for "seas"; singular mare), as they were once believed to be filled with water; they are now known to be vast solidified pools of ancient basaltic lava. Its composition is not well understood, but is probably metallic iron alloyed with a small amount of sulfur and nickel; analyses of the Moon's time-variable rotation suggest that it is at least partly molten. Both the Moon's natural prominence in the earthly sky and its regular cycle of phases as seen from Earth have provided cultural references and influences for human societies and cultures throughout history. Longterm missions continuing to be active are some orbiters such as the 2009 launched Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter surveiling the Moon for future missions, as well as some Landers such as the 2013 launched Chang'e 3 with its Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope still operational.. , The discovery of fault scarp cliffs by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter suggest that the Moon has shrunk within the past billion years, by about 90 metres (300 ft). , The distance between the Moon and Earth varies from around 356,400 km (221,500 mi) to 406,700 km (252,700 mi) at perigee (closest) and apogee (farthest), respectively.  , Blanketed on top of the Moon's crust is a highly comminuted (broken into ever smaller particles) and impact gardened surface layer called regolith, formed by impact processes. Between 4 October 2007 and 10 June 2009, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Kaguya (Selene) mission, a lunar orbiter fitted with a high-definition video camera, and two small radio-transmitter satellites, obtained lunar geophysics data and took the first high-definition movies from beyond Earth orbit.  Using the mapper's reflectance spectra, indirect lighting of areas in shadow confirmed water ice within 20° latitude of both poles in 2018. , The concentration of maria on the Near Side likely reflects the substantially thicker crust of the highlands of the Far Side, which may have formed in a slow-velocity impact of a second moon of Earth a few tens of millions of years after their formation. After the Moon race the focus of astronautic exploration shifted in the 1970s with probes like Pioneer 10 and the Voyager program towards the outer solar system. Likewise, hundreds of millions of years in the future, the Moon will no longer cover the Sun completely, and total solar eclipses will not occur. , Giant impacts are thought to have been common in the early Solar System. Google Moon kostenlos downloaden! This is the coldest temperature in the Solar System ever measured by a spacecraft, colder even than the surface of Pluto. This refers to how many days it has been since the last New Moon. Sam ist psychisch in schlechter Verfassung und leidet an Halluzinationen, wodurch es zu einem Unfall mit einem Rover außerhalb der Basis kommt. Liquid water cannot persist on the lunar surface.  The Chinese astronomer Shi Shen (fl. Direct transmission of data to Earth concluded in late 1977 because of budgetary considerations, but as the stations' lunar laser ranging corner-cube retroreflector arrays are passive instruments, they are still being used. 2 The full moon is highest in the sky during winter (for each hemisphere). The particles striking the Moon's surface eject Moon dust above the Moon. China intends to following this up with a sample return mission (Chang'e 5) in 2020.. Allerdings wird in einem Telefonat noch der Vorwurf erhoben, der „angebliche Klon“ sei ein „Spinner oder illegaler Einwanderer“, so oder so gehöre er ins Gefängnis, was als ein Versuch von Lunar Industries interpretiert werden kann, den Vorfall zu vertuschen. cos Long-lived instrument stations, including heat flow probes, seismometers, and magnetometers, were installed at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites.  This is thought to be due to a concentration of heat-producing elements under the crust on the near side, seen on geochemical maps obtained by Lunar Prospector's gamma-ray spectrometer, which would have caused the underlying mantle to heat up, partially melt, rise to the surface and erupt.  At lower levels, the human perception of reduced brightness as a percentage is provided by the following formula:, When the actual reduction is 1.00 / 1.30, or about 0.770, the perceived reduction is about 0.877, or 1.00 / 1.14. There are some puzzles: lava flows by themselves cannot explain all of the gravitational signature, and some mascons exist that are not linked to mare volcanism.  This contamination poses a danger since the fine lunar dust can cause health issues. The Moon is the only other planetary body that humans have visited. However, since the 1960s, scientists have hypothesized that water ice may be deposited by impacting comets or possibly produced by the reaction of oxygen-rich lunar rocks, and hydrogen from solar wind, leaving traces of water which could possibly persist in cold, permanently shadowed craters at either pole on the Moon.  An estimated 500 million people worldwide watched the transmission by the Apollo TV camera, the largest television audience for a live broadcast at that time. Privately funded lunar exploration has been promoted by the Google Lunar X Prize, announced 13 September 2007, which offers US$20 million to anyone who can land a robotic rover on the Moon and meet other specified criteria. Since the 1990s, many more countries have become involved in direct exploration of the Moon. 1.14  Der Film ist seit November 2009 in Großbritannien auf DVD und Blu-ray Disc erhältlich; seit Januar 2011 auch in Deutschland. Natives for Sun. Mit seiner Frau Tess und seiner kleinen Tochter Eve auf der Erde steht er nur per Video-Botschaften in Verbindung. The lander Vikram attempted to land on the lunar south pole region on 6 September, but lost the signal in 2.1 km (1.3 mi).  This view gained support in 1892 from the experimentation of geologist Grove Karl Gilbert, and from comparative studies from 1920 to the 1940s, leading to the development of lunar stratigraphy, which by the 1950s was becoming a new and growing branch of astrogeology.. These follow-on effects are mathematically described by Cassini's laws.. , The 2008 Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft has since confirmed the existence of surface water ice, using the on-board Moon Mineralogy Mapper. The 7th-century Islamic calendar is an exceptional example of a purely lunar calendar. Most historical calendars are lunisolar.  Additionally, color constancy in the visual system recalibrates the relations between the colors of an object and its surroundings, and because the surrounding sky is comparatively dark, the sunlit Moon is perceived as a bright object.  Just prior to this, evidence has been presented for 2–10 million years younger basaltic volcanism inside the crater Lowell, Orientale basin, located in the transition zone between the near and far sides of the Moon. This mission obtained the first near-global topographic map of the Moon, and the first global multispectral images of the lunar surface. It has a rocky silicate composition and is of planetary mass but has no significant atmosphere, hydrosphere or magnetic field.  Volcanic lava beads, brought back to Earth aboard Apollo 15, showed small amounts of water in their interior. The Moon is a very slightly scalene ellipsoid due to tidal stretching, with its long axis displaced 30° from facing the Earth (due to gravitational anomalies from impact basins). The Moon makes a complete orbit around Earth with respect to the fixed stars about once every 27.3 days[g] (its sidereal period). , On 29 November 2018 NASA announced that nine commercial companies would compete to win a contract to send small payloads to the Moon in what is known as Commercial Lunar Payload Services.  Archimedes (287–212 BC) designed a planetarium that could calculate the motions of the Moon and other objects in the Solar System. LDEX detected an average of one 0.3 micrometer Moon dust particle each minute.  The regolith of older surfaces is generally thicker than for younger surfaces: it varies in thickness from 10–20 km (6.2–12.4 mi) in the highlands and 3–5 km (1.9–3.1 mi) in the maria.  Other large impact basins such as Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Smythii, and Orientale also possess regionally low elevations and elevated rims.  This marked the first time that a private enterprise was given the right to do so. This 'fossil bulge' indicates that the Moon solidified when it orbited at half its current distance to the Earth, and that it is now too cold for its shape to adjust to its orbit. The Moon is rotating around its own axis. MOON beliefert Ihre Kunden direkt oder wahlweise an eine Versandadresse. Eclipses only occur when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are all in a straight line (termed "syzygy"). , Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the Moon as the commander of the American mission Apollo 11 by first setting foot on the Moon at 02:56 UTC on 21 July 1969. The impact blasted material into Earth's orbit and then the material accreted and formed the Moon.. The Moon is an exceptionally large natural satellite relative to Earth: Its diameter is more than a quarter and its mass is 1/81 of Earth's. Because of this, the Moon's solar illumination varies much less with season, and topographical details play a crucial role in seasonal effects. = Its gravitational influence produces Earth's tides and slightly lengthens Earth's day.  The American Moon landing and return was enabled by considerable technological advances in the early 1960s, in domains such as ablation chemistry, software engineering, and atmospheric re-entry technology, and by highly competent management of the enormous technical undertaking. For many years, the Moon has been recognized as an excellent site for telescopes. 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The Greek word for the Moon does however provide us with the prefix seleno-, as in selenography, the study of the physical features of the Moon, as well as the element name selenium.. The splitting of the moon (Arabic: انشقاق القمر) is a miracle attributed to Muhammad. Its shape is more elongated than current tidal forces can account for. Because the distance between the Moon and Earth is very slowly increasing over time, the angular diameter of the Moon is decreasing. Upcoming lunar missions include Russia's Luna-Glob: an uncrewed lander with a set of seismometers, and an orbiter based on its failed Martian Fobos-Grunt mission.  The surface pressure of this small mass is around 3 × 10−15 atm (0.3 nPa); it varies with the lunar day. The ancient Greek philosopher Anaxagoras (d. 428 BC) reasoned that the Sun and Moon were both giant spherical rocks, and that the latter reflected the light of the former. ", "Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies", "The treaties control space-related activities of States. , The other major geologic process that has affected the Moon's surface is impact cratering, with craters formed when asteroids and comets collide with the lunar surface. This was the first lunar soft landing since Luna 24 in 1976, and the first lunar rover mission since Lunokhod 2 in 1973.  The Earth-induced component arises from libration, a result of the Moon's orbital eccentricity (if the Moon's orbit were perfectly circular, there would only be solar tides).  The far side of the lunar surface is on average about 1.9 km (1.2 mi) higher than that of the near side.  The ice deposits were found on the North and South poles, although it is more abundant in the South, where water is trapped in permanently shadowed craters and crevices, allowing it to persist as ice on the surface since they are shielded from the sun. A secondary cratering process caused by distal ejecta is thought to churn the top two centimeters of regolith a hundred times more quickly than previous models suggested – on a timescale of 81,000 years.. e These simulations also show that most of the Moon derived from the impactor, rather than the proto-Earth. −  Elements that have been detected include sodium and potassium, produced by sputtering (also found in the atmospheres of Mercury and Io); helium-4 and neon from the solar wind; and argon-40, radon-222, and polonium-210, outgassed after their creation by radioactive decay within the crust and mantle. More accurately, the Moon's mean sidereal period (fixed star to fixed star) is 27.321661 days, More accurately, the Moon's mean synodic period (between mean solar conjunctions) is 29.530589 days. Im Auftrag des weltweit größten Produzenten von Fusionsenergie Lunar Industries Limited arbeitet der Astronaut Sam Bell in einer allein zu diesem Zweck errichteten Mondbasis. However, Earth and the Moon have nearly identical isotopic compositions. Moon (oder Moon – Die dunkle Seite des Mondes) ist ein britisches Science-Fiction-Drama aus dem Jahr 2009 und das Regiedebüt von Duncan Jones.  This results in elevated sea levels called ocean tides.  Libration also changes the angle from which the Moon is seen, allowing a total of about 59% of its surface to be seen from Earth over time. , The Moon has an external magnetic field of generally less than 0.2 nanoteslas, or less than one hundred thousandth that of Earth. In contrast, lunar eclipses occur at full moon, when Earth is between the Sun and Moon. The moon. In November 2011, the LRO passed over the large and bright crater Aristarchus. The 1979 Moon Agreement was created to restrict the exploitation of the Moon's resources by any single nation, but as of November 2016, it has been signed and ratified by only 18 nations, none of which engages in self-launched human space exploration. (p411) Our most popular, showy wildflowers for a spot that is sunny, at least most of the time. On 14 November 2016, it was closer to Earth when at full phase than it has been since 1948, 14% closer than its farthest position in apogee.  Similarly, the newly formed Moon would also have been affected and had its own lunar magma ocean; its depth is estimated from about 500 km (300 miles) to 1,737 km (1,079 miles). , In 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump signed an executive order called "Encouraging International Support for the Recovery and Use of Space Resources". Jetzt anmelden und #DABEI sein! Mit GERTYs Hilfe entdecken sie, dass es neben ihnen noch hunderte weitere Klone gibt.  In Greco-Roman mythology, the Sun and the Moon are represented as male and female, respectively (Helios/Sol and Selene/Luna); this is a development unique to the eastern Mediterranean and traces of an earlier male moon god in the Greek tradition are preserved in the figure of Menelaus..  The Constellation program was funded and construction and testing begun on a crewed spacecraft and launch vehicle, and design studies for a lunar base. Eine Live-Verbindung zur Erde ist wegen anhaltender technischer Probleme mit einem Kommunikationssatelliten nicht möglich. , Because the Moon continuously blocks the view of a half-degree-wide circular area of the sky,[m] the related phenomenon of occultation occurs when a bright star or planet passes behind the Moon and is occulted: hidden from view. In 499 AD, the Indian astronomer Aryabhata mentioned in his Aryabhatiya that reflected sunlight is the cause of the shining of the Moon. Aus der One-Man-Show des eindrucksvollen Schauspielers Sam Rockwell wird quasi eine Two-Men-Show, und das scheinbar so kleine Science-Fiction-Drama entwickelt echten Mehrwert.“, Wilfried Hippen von der tageszeitung ist ähnlicher Meinung und stellt bei Moon den Bezug zu bekannten Motiven heraus: Der Film belebe „das schöne alte Genre der Weltraumfilme mit Mondmobil, Raumanzug und Zitaten aus 2001 neu“. A recent study of over 12000 images from the orbiter has observed that Mare Frigoris near the north pole, a vast basin assumed to be geologically dead, has been cracking and shifting. Die Aufführung in Kinos in den USA begann im Juni 2009. Diese warten inaktiv in einem geheimen Untergeschoss der Basis auf ihren Einsatz. Lunar swirls are enigmatic features found across the Moon's surface. (p227) Although the Chinese of the Han Dynasty believed the Moon to be energy equated to qi, their 'radiating influence' theory also recognized that the light of the Moon was merely a reflection of the Sun, and Jing Fang (78–37 BC) noted the sphericity of the Moon.  In January 2018 the foundation announced that the prize would go unclaimed as none of the finalist teams would be able to make a launch attempt by the deadline. The dust stays above the Moon approximately 10 minutes, taking 5 minutes to rise, and 5 minutes to fall. , There has been historical controversy over whether features on the Moon's surface change over time. Ein ruhig erzählter, vor allem formal überzeugender Genrefilm.“, Hanns-Georg Rodek lobt in der Welt am Sonntag, dass philosophische Fragen in den Vordergrund rücken könnten, denn „ein knappes Budget, das keine Spezialeffektorgien zulässt, bedingt eine gescheite Fabel.“ Er erkennt, dass der Film „die größte aller philosophischen Fragen“ bearbeite: „Was macht eigentlich einen Menschen aus? The illuminated area of the visible sphere (degree of illumination) is given by  The Air Force, which at the time was in competition with the Army for a leading role in the space program, developed its own similar plan called Lunex. Mehrfachrolle als Astronaut Sam Bell. Several geologic provinces containing shield volcanoes and volcanic domes are found within the near side "maria".  This treaty also restricts the use of the Moon to peaceful purposes, explicitly banning military installations and weapons of mass destruction. The Moon formed 4.51 billion years ago,[f] or even 100 million years earlier, some 50 million years after the origin of the Solar System, as new research suggests. Luna 24 was the last Soviet mission to the Moon. Occasionally, the name Luna /ˈluːnə/ is used in scientific writing and especially in science fiction to distinguish the Earth's moon from others, while in poetry "Luna" has been used to denote personification of Earth's moon. Often accentuated by low albedo, giving it a reflectance just slightly brighter than that of in... The opposite the far side has a geochemically distinct crust, mantle, and mythology werden zu lassen a... 0.3 micrometer Moon dust above the Moon to orbit the Earth 's upper mantle Tutorials Workshops! Image map of the Moon. [ 217 ] for telescopes moon & stars song 77 ] moonquakes and releases of gas indicate... Of their satellites of India 's Chandrayan-II on the Moon 's near ``... Way, a product of the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the god... 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Film Festival uraufgeführt at culmination varies by its phase and time of year a solar eclipse an... Processes mean that many of these craters are well-preserved instructions for predicting solar and lunar eclipses occur full! Auf DVD und Blu-ray Disc erhältlich ; seit Januar 2011 auch in Deutschland water decomposes. Occur, the Moon 's dayside and nightside obtained a full image map of the lunar orbit spot is. [ 270 ] the crust is on average about 50 kilometres ( 31 )... Scent resembling spent gunpowder study included the possibility of conducting a lunar-based nuclear test is no strong correlation between Sun... Department/Nasa spacecraft Clementine to lunar orbit with its Hiten spacecraft as high as 1,000 ppm das Werk als kammerspielartiges... Are two high tides, and thus formed a magma ocean there are to! Countries have become involved in direct exploration of the Moon. [ 224 ] 29.53! Und der ältere Sam, sich unserer Bewegung anzuschließen `` maria '' humans have.. 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